In the terminology of sociologist Fenggang Yang, the segment of Chinese religion including Churches, communities, mosques, and temples that are not part of the red market, i.e. refuse to join the five official religious organizations, yet are not listed as xie jiao. Religious organizations in the gray market are illegal, but being active in one of them (unlike being active in a xie jiao) is not a crime. They were alternatively persecuted and at least half-tolerated for decades, until the new Regulation on Religious Affairs indicated the CCP’s intention of no longer tolerating them.
The Architecture of Hui Schools in Inner Mongolia ‘Hanified’
Buildings with Islamic architecture elements, like domes, are rectified as part of the CCP’s Islam “sinicization” campaign in areas populated by Muslim Huis.
Banned Religious Groups’ Members ‘Transformed’ in Xinjiang Camps
Followers of The Church of Almighty God, Falun Gong, and Jehovah’s Witnesses are kept in camps until they renounce their faith and betray fellow believers.
Unregistered Catholics Told to Obey CCP or Face Consequences
As the Vatican-China Deal of 2018 expires this month, priests refusing to join the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association are threatened with more restrictions.
Official Catholic Church: State-Approved, Hounded Nonetheless
Joining the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association does not mean that persecutions end: state-sanctioned venues are also harassed, unduly controlled, and shut.